No. 148 / Tuesday, August 2, 1988 / Rules and Regulations
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
29 CFR part 1926
Crane or Derrick Suspended Personnel Platforms
CHAPTER XVII--OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT
PART 1926--SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION--Table of Contents
Subpart N--Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Elevators, and Conveyors
Authority: Sec. 107, Contract
Work Hours and Safety Standards Act
(Construction Safety Act) (40 U.S.C. 333); secs. 4, 6, 8, Occupational
Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657); Secretary of
Labor's Order No. 12-71 (36 FR 8754), 8-76 (41 FR 25059), or 9-83 (49
35736), as applicable. Section 1926.550 also issued under 29 CFR Part
Sec. 1926.550 Cranes and derricks.
(g) Crane or derrick suspended
personnel platforms--(1) Scope, application and definitions--(i) Scope
and application. This standard applies to the design, construction, testing,
use and maintenance of personnel platforms, and the hoisting of personnel
platforms on the load lines of cranes or derricks.
(ii) Definitions. For the purposes of this paragraph (g), the following
(A) Failure means load refusal, breakage, or separation of components.
(B) Hoist (or hoisting) means all crane or derrick functions such as lowering,
lifting, swinging, booming in and out or up and down, or suspending a
(C) Load refusal means the point where the ultimate strength is exceeded.
(D) Maximum intended load means the total load of all employees, tools,
materials, and other loads reasonably anticipated to be applied to a personnel
platform or personnel platform component at any one time.
(E) Runway means a firm, level surface designed, prepared and designated
as a path of travel for the weight and configuration of the crane being
used to lift and travel with the crane suspended platform. An existing
surface may be used as long as it meets these criteria.
(2) General requirements. The use of a crane or derrick to hoist employees
on a personnel platform is prohibited, except when the erection, use,
and dismantling of conventional means of reaching the worksite, such as
a personnel hoist, ladder, stairway, aerial lift, elevating work platform
or scaffold, would be more hazardous, or is not possible because of structural
design or worksite conditions.
(3) Cranes and derricks--(i) Operational criteria. (A) Hoisting of the
personnel platform shall be performed in a slow, controlled, cautious
manner with no sudden movements of the crane or derrick, or the platform.
(B) Load lines shall be capable of supporting, without failure, at least
seven times the maximum intended load, except that where rotation resistant
rope is used, the lines shall be capable of supporting without failure,
at least ten times the maximum intended load. The required design factor
is achieved by taking the current safety factor of 3.5 (required under
paragraph (b)(2)) of this section and applying the 50 per cent derating
of the crane capacity which is required by paragraph (g)(3)(i)(F) of this
(C) Load and boom hoist drum brakes, swing brakes, and locking devices
such as pawls or dogs shall be engaged when the occupied personnel platform
is in a stationary working position.
(D) The crane shall be uniformly level within one percent of level grade
and located on firm footing. Cranes equipped with outriggers shall have
them all fully deployed following manufacturer's specifications, insofar
as applicable, when hoisting employees.
(E) The total weight of the loaded personnel platform and related rigging
shall not exceed 50 percent of the rated capaciy for the radius and configuration
of the crane or derrick.
(F) The use of machines having live booms (booms in which lowering is
controlled by a brake without aid from other devices which slow the lowering
speeds) is prohibited.
(ii) Instruments and components. (A) Cranes and derricks with variable
angle booms shall be equipped with a boom angle indicator, readily visible
to the operator.
(B) Cranes with telescoping booms shall be equipped with a device to indicate
clearly to the operator, at all times, the boom's extended length, or
an accurate determination of the load radius to be used during the lift
shall be made prior to hoisting personnel.
(C) A positive acting device shall be used which prevents contact between
the load block or overhaul ball and the boom tip (anti-two- blocking device),
or a system shall be used which deactivates the hoisting action before
damage occurs in the event of a two-blocking situation (two block damage
(D) The load line hoist drum shall have a system or device on the power
train, other than the load hoist brake, which regulates the lowering rate
of speed of the hoist mechanism (controlled load lowering.) Free fall
(i) Design criteria.
(A) The personnel platform and suspension system shall be designed by
a qualified engineer or a qualified person competent in structural design.
(B) The suspension system shall be designed to minimize tipping of the
platform due to movement of employees occupying the platform.
(C) The personnel platform itself, except the guardrail system and personal
fall arrest system anchorages, shall be capable of supporting, without
failure, its own weight and at least five times the maximum intended load.
Criteria for guardrail systems and personal fall arrest system anchorages
are contained in subpart M of this Part.
(A) Each personnel platform
shall be equipped with a guardrail system which meets the requirements
of subpart M, and, shall be enclosed at least from the toeboard to mid-rail
with either solid construction or expanded metal having openings no greater
than \1/2\ inch (1.27 cm).
(B) A grab rail shall be installed inside the entire perimeter of the
(C) Access gates, if installed, shall not swing outward during hoisting.
(D) Access gates, including sliding or folding gates, shall be equipped
with a restraining device to prevent accidental opening.
(E) Headroom shall be provided which allows employees to stand upright
in the platform.
(F) In addition to the use of hard hats, employees shall be protected
by overhead protection on the personnel platform when employees are exposed
to falling objects.
(G) All rough edges exposed to contact by employees shall be surfaced
or smoothed in order to prevent injury to employees from punctures or
(H) All welding of the personnel platform and its components shall be
performed by a qualified welder familiar with the weld grades, types and
material specified in the platform design.
(I) The personnel platform shall be conspicuously posted with a plate
or other permanent marking which indicates the weight of the platform
and its rated load capacity or maximum intended load.
(iii) Personnel platform loading. (A) The personnel platform shall not
be loaded in excess of its rated load capacity. When a personnel platform
does not have a rated load capacity then the personnel platform shall
not be loaded in excess of its maximum intended load.
(B) The number of employees occupying the personnel platform shall not
exceed the number required for the work being performed.
(C) Personnel platforms shall be used only for employees, their tools,
and the materials necessary to do their work, and shall not be used to
hoist only materials or tools when not hoisting personnel.
(D) Materials and tools for use during a personnel lift shall be secured
to prevent displacement.
(E) Materials and tools for use during a personnel lift shall be evenly
distributed within the confines of the platform while the platform is
Rigging. (A) When a wire rope bridle is used to connect the personnel
platform to the load line, each bridle leg shall be connected to a master
link or shackle in such a manner to ensure that the load is evenly divided
among the bridle legs.
(B) Hooks on overhaul ball assemblies, lower load blocks, or other attachment
assemblies shall be of a type that can be closed and locked, eliminating
the hook throat opening. Alternatively, an alloy anchor type shackle with
a bolt, nut and retaining pin may be used.
(C) Wire rope, shackles, rings, master links, and other rigging hardware
must be capable of supporting, without failure, at least five times the
maximum intended load applied or transmitted to that component. Where
rotation resistant rope is used, the slings shall be capable of supporting
without failure at least ten times the maximum intended load.
(D) All eyes in wire rope slings shall be fabricated with thimbles.
(E) Bridles and associated rigging for attaching the personnel platform
to the hoist line shall be used only for the platform and the necessary
employees, their tools and the materials necessary to do their work, and
shall not be used for any other purpose when not hoisting personnel.
Trial lift, inspection, and proof testing.
(i) A trial lift with the unoccupied personnel platform loaded at least
to the anticipated liftweight
shall be made from ground level, or any other location where employees
will enter the platform, to each location at which the personnel platform
is to be hoisted and positioned. This trial lift shall be performed immediately
prior to placing personnel on the platform. The operator shall determine
that all systems, controls and safety devices are activated and functioning
properly; that no interferences exist; and that all configurations necessary
to reach those work locations will allow the operator to remain under
the 50 percent limit of the hoist's rated capacity. Materials and tools
to be used during the actual lift can be loaded in the platform, as provided
in paragraphs (g)(4)(iii) (D), and (E) of this section for the trial lift.
A single trial lift may be performed at one time for all locations that
are to be reached from a single set up position.
(ii) The trial lift shall be repeated prior to hoisting employees whenever
the crane or derrick is moved and set up in a new location or returned
to a previously used location. Additionally, the trial lift shall be repeated
when the lift route is changed unless the operator determines that the
route change is not significant (i.e. the route change would not affect
the safety of hoisted employees.)
(iii) After the trial lift, and just prior to hoisting personnel, the
platform shall be hoisted a few inches and inspected to ensure that it
is secure and properly balanced. Employees shall not be hoisted unless
the following conditions are determined to exist:
(A) Hoist ropes shall be free of kinks;
(B) Multiple part lines shall not be twisted around each other;
(C) The primary attachment shall be centered over the platform; and
(D) The hoisting system shall be inspected if the load rope is slack to
ensure all ropes are properly stated on drums and in sheaves.
(iv) A visual inspection of the crane or derrick, rigging, personnel platform,
and the crane or derrick base support or ground shall be conducted by
a competent person immediately after the trial lift to determine whether
the testing has exposed any defect or produced any adverse effect upon
any component or structure. (v) Any defects found during inspections which
create a safety hazard shall be corrected before hoisting personnel.
(vi) At each job site, prior to hoisting employees on the personnel platform,
and after any repair or modification, the platform and rigging shall be
proof tested to 125 percent of the platform's rated capacity by holding
it in a suspended position for five minutes with the test load evenly
distributed on the platform (this may be done concurrently with the trial
lift). After prooftesting, a competent person shall inspect
the platform and rigging. Any deficiencies found shall be corrected and
another proof test shall be conducted. Personnel hoisting shall not be
conducted until the proof testing requirements are satisfied.
(6) Work practices.
(i) Employees shall keep all parts of the body inside the platform during
raising, lowering, and positioning. This provision does not apply to an
occupant of the platform performing the duties of a signal person.
(ii) Before employees exit or enter a hoisted personnel platform that
is not landed, the platform shall be secured to the structure where the
work is to be performed, unless securing to the structure creates an unsafe
(iii) Tag lines shall be used unless their use creates an unsafe condition.
(iv) The crane or derrick operator shall remain at the controls at all
times when the crane engine is running and the platform is occupied.
(v) Hoisting of employees shall be promptly discontinued upon indication
of any dangerous weather conditions or other impending danger.
(vi) Employees being hoisted shall remain in continuous sight of and in
direct communication with the operator or signal person. In those situations
where direct visual contact with the operator is not possible, and the
use of a signal person would create a greater hazard for that person,
direct communication alone such as by radio may be used.
(vii) Except over water, employees occupying the personnel platform shall
use a body belt/harness system with lanyard appropriately attached to
the lower load block or overhaul ball, or to a structural member within
the personnel platform capable of supporting a fall impact for employees
using the anchorage. When working over water, the requirements of Sec.
1926.106 shall apply.
(viii) No lifts shall be made on another of the crane's or derrick's loadlines
while personnel are suspended on a platform.
(7) Traveling. (i) Hoisting of employees while the crane is traveling
is prohibited, except for portal, tower and locomotive cranes, or where
the employer demonstrates that there is no less hazardous way to perform
(ii) Under any circumstances where a crane would travel while hoisting
personnel, the employer shall implement the following procedures to safeguard
(A) Crane travel shall be restricted to a fixed track or runway; (B) Travel
shall be limited to the load radius of the boom used during the lift;
(C) The boom must be parallel to the direction of travel.
(D) A complete trial run shall be performed to test the route of travel
before employees are allowed to occupy the platform. This trial
run can be performed at the same time as the trial lift required by paragraph
(g)(5)(i) of this section which tests the route of the lift.
(E) If travel is done with a rubber tired-carrier, the condition and air
pressure of the tires shall be checked. The chart capacity for lifts on
rubber shall be used for application of the 50 percent reduction of rated
capacity. Notwithstanding paragraph (g)(3)(i)(E) of this section,
outriggers may be partially retracted as necessary for travel.
(i) A meeting attended by the crane or derrick operator, signal person(s)
(if necessary for the lift), employee(s) to be lifted, and the person
responsible for the task to be performed shall be held to review the appropriate
requirements of paragraph (g) of this section and the procedures to be
(ii) This meeting shall be held prior to the trial lift at each new work
location, and shall be repeated for any employees newly assigned to the
[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979;
44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, as amended at 52
FR 36382, Sept. 28, 1987; 53 FR 29139, Aug. 2, 1988; 54 FR 15406, Apr.
18, 1989; 54 FR 24334, June 7, 1989; 58 FR 35183, June 30, 1993; 59 FR
40730, Aug. 9, 1994; 61 FR 5510, Feb. 13, 1996]
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